It has been proposed that object perception can proceed through different routes, which can be situated on a continuum ranging from complete viewpoint-dependency to complete viewpoint-independency, depending on the objects and the task at hand. Although these different routes have been extensively demonstrated on the behavioral level, the corresponding distinction in the underlying neural substrate has not received the same attention. Our goal was to disentangle, on the behavioral and the neurofunctional level, a process associated with extreme viewpoint-dependency, i.e. mental rotation, and a process associated with extreme viewpoint-independency, i.e. the use of viewpoint-invariant, diagnostic features. Two sets of 3-D block figures were created that either differed in handedness (original versus mirrored) or in the angles joining the block components (orthogonal versus skewed). Behavioral measures on a same-different judgment task were predicted to be dependent on viewpoint in the rotation condition (same versus mirrored), but not in the invariance condition (same angles versus different angles). Six subjects participated in an fMRI experiment while presented with both conditions in alternating blocks. Both reaction times and accuracy confirmed the predicted dissociation between the two conditions. Neurofunctional results indicate that all cortical areas activated in the invariance condition were also activated in the rotation condition. Parietal areas were more activated than occipito-temporal areas in the rotation condition, while this pattern was reversed in the invariance condition. Furthermore, some areas were activated uniquely by the rotation condition, probably reflecting the additional processes apparent in the behavioral response patterns.