Human papillomavirus type 13(HPV-13) is associated with oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in humans. A recent epidemic of a FEH-like disease in a pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) colony allowed us to clone a novel papillomavirus genome. To assess the homology between HPV-13 and the pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1 (PCPV-1), the complete nucleotide sequences of both FEH-related viruses were determined. In both viruses, all eight major open reading frames were located on one strand and the genomic organization was similar to that of other mucosal papillomaviruses. The genomes of PCPV-1 and HPV-13 showed extensive overall sequence homology (85%). They could be classified, using phylogenetic analysis, together with HPV types 6, 11, 43, and 44 in a group associated with benign orogenital lesions. These data indicate that two phylogenetically related papillomaviruses can elicit similar pathology in different primate host species, reflecting viral genomic similarities.