Clinical journal of the american society of nephrology vol:5 issue:7 pages:1182-1189
Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis.