Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in pulmonary lymphoid follicles of patients with COPD
Van Pottelberge, G R × Bracke, K R Van den broeck, S Reinartz, S M van Drunen, C M Wouters, E F Verleden, Geert Vermassen, F E Joos, G F Brusselle, G G #
Published jointly by the Society and Munksgaard
European Respiratory Journal vol:36 issue:4 pages:781-91
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells with antiviral and tolerogenic capabilities. Viral infections and autoimmunity are proposed to be important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study aimed to quantify blood dendritic cell antigen 2-positive pDCs in lungs of subjects with or without COPD by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, combined with the investigation of the influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the function of pDCs in vitro. pDCs were mainly located in lymphoid follicles, a finding compatible with their expression of lymphoid homing chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4. pDC accumulated in the lymphoid follicles and in lung digests of patients with mild to moderate COPD, compared with smokers without airflow limitation and patients with COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease (GOLD) stage III-IV. Exposing maturing pDC of healthy subjects to CSE in vitro revealed an attenuation of the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and impaired interferon-α production. Maturing pDC from patients with COPD produced higher levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 compared to pDC from healthy subjects. CSE significantly impairs the antiviral function of pDCs. In COPD, a GOLD stage dependent accumulation of pDC in lymphoid follicles is present, combined with an enhanced production of TNF-α and IL-8 by maturing pDCs.