Revue internationale de psychologie sociale-international review of social psychology vol:21 issue:1-2 pages:217-246
The purpose of the present studies was twofold: (a) to describe the spectrum of goals adopted in physical education, and, (b) to relate forced-choice reports of goal orientations to open-ended, qualitative ones. Elementary (n = 139) and middle school (n = 342) physical education students participated in two studies. Results indicated that mastery approach goals included strong elements of social goals, (b) mastery avoidance goals were nonexistent, questioning their presence in physical education, (c) performance approach goals involved strong elements of mastery approach goals and social goals, and, (d) performance avoidance goals involved high frequencies of mastery goals and affectivity goals. Also, the relationship between students' forced selection of goal orientations and their responses to open-ended questions was rather low. It is concluded that multiple goals are most likely operative in achievement contexts and researchers may need to focus on their combination in order to understand students' achievement strivings.