Is it possible to conceive of environmental duties in the private domain? This question is looked upon from the perspective of the relation between duties and institutions. A distinction is made between an institutionoriented and a lifestyle-oriented approach to citizenship duties. The argument consists of two parts. In the first part, an institution-oriented view – that of Rawls – is discussed. In Rawls’s account duties are limited in their orientation (institutions) and extent (cost roviso and basic liberties). The second part examines whether private actions can be part of such an institution-oriented view. It is argued that there are several kinds of private
duties conceivable in an institution-oriented approach without having the disadvantages of a lifestyle-oriented approach.