This article describes the preparation of pH-responsive self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of acylated anthranilate-terminated alkanethiol. These monolayers are formed by chemisorption of the alkanethiol molecules onto a gold surface, resulting in different wetting properties of the surfaces depending upon the pH. By using various characterization techniques (e.g., infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, contact angle measurements, and surface energy analysis), we have found that the changes in the wetting properties originate from the different surface structures of the monolayers in different pH environments. From surface energy analysis, we found that the disperse components of the surface energy on such SAMs predominate after treatment with pH 1 water, whereas the polar components of the surface energy on such SAMs predominate after treatment with pH 13 water. It is greatly anticipated that this line of research will provide new insight into the mechanism behind pH-responsive properties, facilitating the design and synthesis of new surface-active molecules for the fabrication of pH-responsive functional surfaces.