The unique properties of the wheat grain reside primarily in the gluten-forming storage proteins of its endosperm. Wheat gluten's structural and functional properties have led to an expanding diversity of applications in food products. However, its viscoelastic properties and low water Solubility also are very interesting features for nonfood applications. Moreover, gluten is annually renewable and perfectly biodegradable, In the processing and setting Of gluten containing products, temperature plays a very important role. In this review, the structure and reactivity of gluten are discussed and the importance of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (SS) groups is demonstrated. Wheat gluten aggregation upon thermosetting proceeds through direct covalent cross-linking in and between its protein groups, glutenin and gliadin. Predominant reactions include SH oxidation and SH/SS interchange reactions leading to the formation of SS cross-links. Additionally, thermal treatment Of gluten call result in the formation of other than SS covalent bonds. We here review two main technological approaches to make gluten-based materials: wet processes resulting in thin films and dry processes, such as extrusion or compression molding, exploiting the thermoplastic properties of proteins under low moisture conditions and potentially resulting in Very useful materials. Gluten bioplastics can also be reinforced with natural fibers, resulting in biocomposites. Although a lot of progress has been made the past decade, the current gluten materials are still outperformed by their synthetic polymer Counterparts.