Spectrum of X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS), MASA syndrome, and complicated spastic paraplegia (SPG1): Clinical review with six additional families
Schrander-Stumpel, C × Höweler, C Jones, M Sommer, A Stevens, C Tinschert, S Israel, J Fryns, Jean-Pierre #
American Journal of Medical Genetics vol:57 issue:1 pages:107-16
X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) (MIM *307000), MASA syndrome (MIM *303350), and complicated spastic paraplegia (SPG1) (MIM *312900) are closely related. Soon after delineation, SPG1 was incorporated into the spectrum of MASA syndrome. HSAS and MASA syndrome show great clinical overlap; DNA linkage analysis places the loci at Xq28. In an increasing number of families with MASA syndrome or HSAS, mutations in L1CAM, a gene located at Xq28, have been reported. In order to further delineate the clinical spectrum, we studied 6 families with male patients presenting with MASA syndrome, HSAS, or a mixed phenotype. We summarized data from previous reports and compared them with our data. Clinical variability appears to be great, even within families. Problems in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, the possible overlap with X-linked corpus callosum agenesis and FG syndrome, and the different forms of X-linked complicated spastic paraplegia are discussed. Since adducted thumbs and spastic paraplegia are found in 90% of the patients, the condition may be present in males with nonspecific mental retardation. We propose to abandon the designation MASA syndrome and use the term HSAS/MASA spectrum, incorporating SPG1.