Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge. It is characterised by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptocci, Mobiluncus spp.) in the vagina leading to a replacement of lactobacilli and an increase in vaginal pH. BV can arise and remit spontaneously, but often presents as a chronic or recurrent disease. BV is found most often in women of childbearing age, but may also be encountered in menopausal women, and is rather rare in children. The clinical and microscopic features and diagnosis of BV are herein reviewed, and antibiotic and non-antibiotic treatment approaches discussed. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this educational activity, the participant should be better able to analyze bacterial vaginosis clinically, formulate an oral antibiotic treatment regimen for bacterial vaginosis and use vaginal treatments for bacterial vaginosis.