Journal of physical chemistry c vol:114 issue:5 pages:2349-2359
Successfully predicting the frequency dispersion of electronic hyperpolarizabilities is an unresolved challenge in materials science and electronic structure theory. We show that the generalized Thomas-Kuhn sum rules, combined with linear absorption data and measured hyperpolarizability at one or two frequencies, may be used to predict the entire frequency-dependent electronic hyperpolarizability spectrum. This treatment includes two- and three-level contributions that arise from the lowest two or three excited electronic state manifolds, enabling us to describe the unusual observed frequency dispersion of the dynamic hyperpolarizability in high oscillator strength M-PZn chromophores, where (porphinato)zinc(II) (PZn) and metal(II)polypyridyl (M) units are connected via an ethyne unit that aligns the high oscillator strength transition dipoles of these components in a head-to-tail arrangement. We show that some of these structures can possess very similar linear absorption spectra yet manifest dramatically different frequency-dependent hyperpolarizabilities, because of three-level contributions that result from excited state-to-excited state transition dipoles among charge polarized states. Importantly, this approach provides a quantitative scheme to use linear optical absorption spectra and very limited individual hyperpolarizability measurements to predict the entire frequency-dependent nonlinear optical response.