Coe, Benjamin J × Fielden, John Foxon, Simon P Harris, James A Helliwell, Madeleine Brunschwig, Bruce S Asselbergh, Inge Clays, Koen Garin, Javier Orduna, Jesus #
Amer chemical soc
Journal of the american chemical society vol:132 issue:30 pages:10498-10512
In this article, we present a detailed study of structure-activity relationships in diquaternized 2,2'-bipyridyl (diquat) derivatives. Sixteen new chromophores have been synthesized, with variations in the amino electron donor substituents, pi-conjugated bridge, and alkyl diquaternizing unit. Our aim is to combine very large, two-dimensional (2D) quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses with reversible redox chemistry. The chromophores have been characterized as their PF6- salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Their visible absorption spectra are dominated by intense pi -> pi* intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) bands, and all show two reversible diquat-based reductions. First hyperpolarizabilities beta have been measured by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering with an 800 nm laser, and Stark spectroscopy of the ICT bands affords estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities beta(0). The directly and indirectly derived beta values are large and increase with the extent of pi-conjugation and electron donor strength. Extending the quaternizing alkyl linkage always increases the ICT energy and decreases the E-1/2 values for diquat reduction, but a compensating increase in the ICT intensity prevents significant decreases in Stark-based beta(0) responses. Nine single-crystal X-ray structures have also been obtained. Time-dependent density functional theory clarifies the molecular electronic/optical properties, and finite field calculations agree with polarized HAS data in that the NLO responses of the disubstituted species are dominated by 'off-diagonal' beta(zyy), components. The most significant findings of these studies are: (i) beta(0) values as much as 6 times that of the chromophore in the technologically important material (E)-4'-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate; (ii) reversible electrochemistry that offers potential for redox-switching of optical properties over multiple states; (iii) strongly 2D NLO responses that may be exploited for novel practical applications; (iv) a new polar material, suitable for bulk NLO behavior.