Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) has been shown to be highly efficacious in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Continuous and adequate dosing is essential for optimal outcomes and with imatinib treatment possibly being lifelong, patient adherence is critical. The ADAGIO (Adherence Assessment with Glivec: Indicators and Outcomes) study aimed to assess prospectively over a 90-day period the prevalence of imatinib nonadherence in patients with CML; to develop a multivariate canonical correlation model of how various determinants may be associated with various measures of nonadherence; and to examine whether treatment response is associated with adherence levels. A total of 202 patients were recruited from 34 centers in Belgium, of whom 169 were evaluable. One-third of patients were considered to be nonadherent. Only 14.2% of patients were perfectly adherent with 100% of prescribed imatinib taken. On average, patients with suboptimal response had significantly higher mean percentages of imatinib not taken (23.2%, standard deviation [SD] = 23.8) than did those with optimal response (7.3%, SD = 19.3, P = .005; percentages calculated as proportions x 100). Nonadherence is more prevalent than patients, physicians, and family members believe it is, and therefore should be assessed routinely. It is associated with poorer response to imatinib. Several determinants may serve as alert signals, many of which are clinically modifiable.