Journal of biological chemistry vol:275 issue:43 pages:33688-33696
Kininogens, the high molecular weight precursor of vasoactive kinins, bind to a wide variety of cells in a specific, reversible, and saturable manner. The cell docking sites have been mapped to domains D3 and D5(H) of kininogens; however, the corresponding cellular acceptor sites are not fully established. To characterize the major cell binding sites for kininogens exposed by the endothelial cell line EA.hy926, we digested intact cells with trypsin and other proteases and found a time- and concentration-dependent loss of I-125-labeled high molecular weight kininogen (H-kininogen) binding capacity (up to 82%), indicating that proteins are crucially involved in kininogen cell attachment. Cell surface digestion with heparinases similarly reduced kininogen binding capacity (up to 78%), and the combined action of heparinases and trypsin almost eliminated kininogen binding (up to 85%), suggesting that proteoglycans of the heparan sulfate type are intimately involved. Consistently, inhibitors such as p-nitrophenyl-beta -D-xylopyranoside and chlorate interfering with heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis reduced the total number of kininogen binding sites in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (up to 67%). In vitro binding studies demonstrated that biotinylated H-kininogen binds to heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans via domains D3 and D5(H) and that the presence of Zn2+ promotes this association. Cloning and over-expression of the major endothelial heparan sulfate-type proteoglycans syndecan-1, syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and glypican in HEK293t cells significantly increased total heparan sulfate at the cell surface and thus the number of kininogen binding sites (up to 3.3-fold). This gain in kininogen binding capacity was completely abolished by treating transfected cells with heparinases. We conclude that heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the surface of endothelial cells provide a platform for the local accumulation of kininogens on the vascular lining. This accumulation may allow the circumscribed release of short-lived kinins from their precursor molecules in close proximity to their sites of action.