A diagnostic reference level (DRL) is a dose level for a typical X-ray examination of a group of patients with standard body sizes and for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied. In this paper, we have calculated DRLs for screening mammography in Belgium. The 95th percentile of the mean average glandular dose is 2.46 mGy. The DRL based on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) measurements was 2.08 mGy. Correlation coefficient (R) between doses from patient studies and phantom studies was 0.90, with an average underestimation of the phantom measurements of 15% for systems that use only Mo/Mo anode/filter. For the centres that use other anode/filters, there is not enough scientific evidence that a single phantom measurement of a standard PMMA block is representative for the patient dose.