Published for the British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery by Churchill Livingstone
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume vol:93 issue:Supp III pages:274
Annual Meeting of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association edition:64 location:Whistler, Canada date:3-6 July 2009
Purpose: Precise biomechanical reconstruction of the hip joint by a hip arthroplasty is essential for the success of this procedure. With the increasing use of surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA), there is a need for better understanding of the key factors that influence the anatomical and the biomechanical parameters of the resurfaced hip joint. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of SRA on the vertical and horizontal offset of the hip. Method: Twenty-one hips from 12 embalmed cadavers were resurfaced with a Birmingham Hip resurfacing. The thickness of the acetabular bone was measured pre- and post-reaming in 6 acetabular zones. Radiographs were taken before and after the procedure with a scaling marker. For statistical analysis, the paired Student’s T-test with a confidence interval of 95% and a significant p-value of p<0.05 was used. Results: The mean acetabular bone loss was 3.8 mm, 5.9 mm, 9.3 mm, 10.6 mm, 8.5 mm and 3.6 mm in zones 1 to 6. The “polar length loss” is the cumulative displacement of the femoral and the acetabular articulating surface in zones 2 to 5. This displacement indicates a shortening of the neck plus a medio-cranial displacement of the acetabular articulating surface and was 4.3 mm, 7.5 mm, 9.4 mm and 7.7 mm (zone 2-5). The radiographic center of rotation (COR) was significantly medialised (mean 6.2 mm) and displaced in the cranial direction (mean 6.9 mm) (p<0.00001). The mean total (femoral plus acetabular) horizontal and vertical offset change was 6.4 mm and 9.5 mm respectively (p<0.00001). There was a significantly higher vertical offset change in the acetabulum than in the femur (p=0.0006). This resulted in a significantly larger change in vertical than in horizontal offset (p=0,04). Conclusion: The displacement of the acetabular COR was responsible for 60% of the total vertical and 99% of the total horizontal offset change. The femoral side did not compensate for this displacement. SRA did not restore the biomechanics of the native hip.