BACKGROUND/AIM: Portal colopathy, the occurrence of vascular-ectasia like lesions has been observed in patients with portal hypertension of variable etiology. Schistosomiasis is a major cause of liver damage and portal hypertension. In colonic schistosomiasis, vascular alterations are commonly observed. It is therefore possible that schistosomiasis may induce portal colopathy in addition to inflammatory changes directly induced by oviposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to examine this possibility, we reviewed the endoscopic data obtained in 100 consecutive patients with established bilharziosis. In addition, endoscopic biopsies from all patients were examined for the presence of inflammation, parasite eggs, granulomas and mucosal vascular congestion. The latter was assessed using immunohistochemical staining for Ulex Europaeus. RESULTS: Endoscopic abnormalities were observed in 66/100 patients. The main lesions were abnormalities in vascularisation of the mucosa, especially hyperemia, defined as the presence of numerous, prominent and irregular vessels (62%) and telangiectasia (4%). The mucosal biopsies revealed prominent vascularisation in 60% of the cases. Positivity for ulex staining was significantly correlated with the finding of hyperemia during endoscopy and with the presence of ova. No good correlation was found with the clinical presentation. The lesions were not well correlated with the presence of an increased cellular infiltrate in mucosal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: This observation suggests that portal colopathy may explain some of the endoscopic lesions observed in the colon of patients with Schistosomiasis.