Title: Determination of boundary conditions for passive schools : impact on heating/cooling demand (case study)
Authors: Wauman, Barbara ×
Saelens, Dirk
Breesch, Hilde
Poppe, Jeroen
Achten, Kristien
Klein, Ralf
Van Loon, Stefan #
Issue Date: 2010
Host Document: Tagungsband zur 14. Internationalen Passivhaustagung pages:239-244
Conference: International passive house conference edition:14 location:Dresden (Germany) date:28-29 May 2010
Abstract: In Flanders (Belgium), the evolution towards more energy efficient school buildings started in 2009 by the approval and subsidizing of 24 passive schools, covering up to 65.000 m².
As of December 7, 2007, the criteria for Flemish passive school were set forward by the government:
1° annual net heating demand ≤ 15 kWh/m².a
2° annual net cooling demand ≤ 15 kWh/m².a
3° n50 ≤ 0,6 h-1
4° maximum E-level = 55 (energy performance)

To evaluate the performance of a design, monthly energy balances methods partially based on EN ISO 13790 are used. The results of these calculations are strongly influenced by the users profiles and boundary conditions. In school buildings, these boundary conditions differ strongly from the well known characteristics of residential and office buildings. Schools typically have a discontinuous user profile, higher occupancy rates, higher internal heat gains and ventilation flow rates and a large percentage of glass surface. In conclusion, a set of boundary conditions need to be defined to guarantee a uniform and objective evaluation of the design of all passive school building in Flanders.

On the one hand, boundary conditions, meeting the specific characteristics typical of schools, are developed based on the existing European, Belgian, German and Dutch standards concerning energy performance, ventilation and comfort. Moreover, these boundary conditions are tested by the assumptions in the existing German passive schools and the design of 6 pilot projects in Flanders. On the other hand, these boundary conditions are implemented in the existing monthly calculation methods PHPP and EPBD. The impact of these characteristics on the energy demand for heating and cooling is studied. Moreover, these calculations are compared to the results of dynamic building simulations in TRNSYS.

The paper will give an overview of the developed boundary conditions and clearly amplify the effects of these properties on the energy demand using both static and dynamic tools. A comparison will be made between the currently applied boundary conditions and the newly defined properties. This analysis is applied on the kindergarten of Etterbeek (Brussels), a design of EVR-architects, engineering office 3E (energy),Fraeye and Partners (structural engineering) and Stockman (HVAC systems).

This paper is the result of the participation of the Catholic University College Ghent in a research study ‘Development of the specific boundary conditions for schools built by the passive house standard’ by Flemish government order (AGIOn).
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IC
Appears in Collections:Building Physics Section
Department of Civil Engineering - miscellaneous
Formerly "Departement Industriƫle Wetenschappen - TM M"
Construction TC, Technology Campuses Ghent and Aalst
Technologiecluster Bouw
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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