Neonatal tracheal changes following in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Fayoux, Pierre × Hosana, Gregory Devisme, Louise Deprest, Jan Jani, Jacques Vaast, Pascal Storme, Laurent #
Journal of Pediatric Surgery vol:45 issue:4 pages:687-92
OBJECTIVE: To report postnatal tracheal changes after in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary care center, CDH National Reference Center. PATIENTS: Seven consecutive newborn infants with severe CDH who underwent fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion. INTERVENTIONS: Flexible laryngotracheoscopy and histological aspect observed at necropsy in 2 nonsurvivors. RESULTS: All infants displayed elongation and relaxation of the posterior tracheal wall, intermittently obstructing the lumen during tidal breathing. Whereas the cartilage displayed adequate rigidity, the pars membranacea appeared both flaccid and loose. Tracheal widening (tracheomegaly) was seen in all cases. Histology (n = 2) pointed to structural modifications throughout the pars membranacea, that is, loss of epithelial folding and of longitudinal elastic network and focal muscular disruption. The cartilage displayed no visible or histologic changes. The above tracheal changes were not symptomatic, except for a barking cough during increased respiratory efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal widening and intermittent collapse of the posterior wall of the trachea during tidal breathing was found in 7 consecutive newborns who underwent fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion, causing mild clinical symptoms. Endoscopic tracheal assessment might provide useful information in children with CDH, in particular, when they underwent in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion.