One of the most investigated low-penetrance genes is the androgen receptor gene. A recent meta-analysis showed however that the absolute difference in number of repeats between cases and controls was less than one repeat. This result has questioned whether the androgen receptor gene could be functionally important in prostate cancer etiology. The authors hypothesize that genes that are downstream from the androgen receptor gene, potentially those involved in testosterone response, could be of more interest. One of the primary responses of prostate cells to testosterone is the production of polyamines. Recently, a meta-analysis across gene-expression profiling studies found that genes in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway appear to be consistently dysregulated in prostate cancer. Polyamines are also involved in prostate diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the authors suggest that future oncologic research to identify candidate regions for prostate cancer should focus on genes dysregulated in this pathway.