Tropical animal health and production vol:42 issue:4 pages:769-776
This study was conducted from August 2005 to January 2007 to determine prevalence and distribution of dourine in horses and to investigate the occurrence of clinical and carrier cases in donkeys and mules in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Study methodology was based on questionnaire, serological, clinical and parasitological survey. The questionnaire indicated that dourine is a major health problem of equines in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Though dourine is commonly observed throughout the year, it has a seasonal character and occurs mostly during the breeding season from June to late September. Serological screening of 646 horses showed a seroprevalence of 184 (28%), 161 (25%) and 125 (19%) for card agglutination test for trypanosomosis, LATEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Risk factors were parity number, previous history of abortion and body condition score. No trypanosomes could be detected by Giemsa staining or by haematocrit centrifugation technique. Ten puppies inoculated with blood samples, genital washes and oedematous fluids remained parasitologically negative. Different characteristic signs of dourine were observed. During the genital stage, mares showed vaginal oedema, discharge and presence of depigmented scars over the external genitalia. In stallions, oedema of the scrotum and prepuce, prepucial and urethral discharge, and ulceration of the genital mucosae mainly of the penile were observed. In both sexes, lameness in one or both legs, partial dragging and stiffness of the hind legs and incoordination were the dominant signs observed as nervous form of the disease.