Primary mutations selected in vitro with raltegravir confer large fold changes in susceptibility to first-generation integrase inhibitors, but minor fold changes to inhibitors with second-generation resistance profiles
Goethals, Olivia × Vos, Ann Van Ginderen, Marcia Geluykens, Peggy Smits, Veerle Schols, Dominique Hertogs, Kurt Clayton, Reginald #
Virology vol:402 issue:2 pages:338-346
Emergence of resistance to raltegravir reduces its treatment efficacy in HIV-1-infected patients. To delineate the effect of resistance mutations on viral susceptibility to integrase inhibitors, in vitro resistance selections with raltegravir and with MK-2048, an integrase inhibitor with a second-generation-like resistance profile, were performed. Mutation Q148R arose in four out of six raltegravir-selected resistant viruses. In addition, mutations Q148K and N155H were selected. In the same time frame, no mutations were selected with MK-2048. Q148H/K/R and N155H conferred resistance to raltegravir, but only minor changes in susceptibility to MK-2048. V54I, a previously unreported mutation, selected with raltegravir, was identified as a possible compensation mutation. Mechanisms by which N155H, Q148H/K/R, Y143R and E92Q confer resistance are proposed based on a structural model of integrase. These data improve the understanding of resistance against raltegravir and cross-resistance to MK-2048 and other integrase inhibitors, which will aid in the discovery of second-generation integrase inhibitors.