Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Biomembranes vol:1798 issue:8 pages:1512-1521
Lipid rafts are often considered as microdomains enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol, predominantly residing in the plasma membrane but which originate in earlier compartments of the cellular secretory pathway. Within this pathway, the membranes of the Golgi complex represent a transition stage between the cholesterol-poor membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane. The rafts are related to detergent-resistant membranes, which because of their ordered structure are poorly penetrated by cold non-ionic detergents and float in density gradient centrifugation. In this study the microdomain niche of the Golgi-resident SPCA Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) pumps was investigated in HT29 cells by Triton X-100 detergent extraction and density-gradient centrifugation. Similarly to cholesterol and the raft-resident flotillin-2, SPCA1 was found mainly in detergent-resistant fractions, while SERCA3 was detergent-soluble. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion of cells resulted in redistribution of flotillin-2 and SPCA1 to the detergent-soluble fractions of the density gradient. Additionally, the time course of solubilization by Triton X-100 was investigated in live COS-1 and HT29 cells expressing fluorescent SERCA2b, SPCA1d or SPCA2. In both cell types, the ER-resident SERCA2b protein was gradually solubilized, while SPCA1d resisted to detergent solubilization. SPCA2 was more sensitive to detergent extraction than SPCA1d. To investigate the functional impact of cholesterol on SPCA1, ATPase activity was monitored. Depletion of cholesterol inhibited the activity of SPCA1d, while SERCA2b function was not altered. From these results we conclude that SPCA1 is associated with cholesterol-rich domains of HT29 cells and that the cholesterol-rich environment is essential for the functioning of the pump.