Modulation of 5-fluorouracil with methotrexate and low-dose N-(phosphonacetyl)-1-aspartate in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Results of a phase II study
Kohne, CH × Harstrick, A Hiddemann, W Schöffski, Patrick Wilke, H Bokemeyer, C Dorken, B Schmoll, HJ #
European Journal of Cancer vol:33 issue:11 pages:1896-1899
Methotrexate (MTX) and N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate acid (PALA) have been shown to modulate the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A phase II study was initiated to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of PALA/MTX and 5-FU in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 26 patients received PALA 250 mg/m(2) as an intravenous 15-min infusion plus MTX 200 mg/m(2) as a 30-min intravenous (i.v.) infusion on day 1 and 5-FU 600 mg/m(2) as i.v. push on day 2. Cycles were repeated every 14 days and the 5-FU dose was escalated in the individual patient in steps of 100 mg/m(2) for the third, fifth and seventh cycle in the absence of toxicity. 7 patients had received prior 5-FU-based chemotherapy while 19 patients were chemotherapy naive. Objective responses occurred in 23% of patients (1 CR, 5 PR of which 2 were pretreated), no change in 13 patients (50%) and tumour progression (6 patients) or toxic death (one patient) in 27%. Responses lasted for a median of 7 months (range 6-9), the median time to progression was 4 months and median survival 13 months. Toxicity was mainly gastrointestinal with diarrhoea and mucositis, and severe or life threatening in only 3 patients. In 3 patients an increase in serum glucose levels occurred while being treated with PALA/MTX and 5-FU. 2 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes had a 33% increase in insulin requirement and 1 patient with dietary-controlled diabetes died due to a ketoacidotic coma. PALA/MTX/5-FU in this dose and schedule is active in patients with colorectal cancer. Hyperglycaemia may be a potential side-effect of PALA-containing regimens especially in patients with diabetes. Careful monitoring of serum glucose levels in these patients is indicated. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.