Theoretical and Applied Climatology vol:100 issue:3-4 pages:439-465
Nasser Lake is located in a hyper-arid region in the south of Egypt. Evaporation is by far the most important factor in explaining the water losses from the lake. To obtain better management scenarios for Nasser Lake, an accurate estimation of the lake evaporation losses thus is essential. This paper presents an update of previous evaporation estimates, making use of local meteorological and hydrological data collected from instrumented platforms (floating weather stations) at three locations on the lake: at Raft, Allaqi, and Abusembel (respectively at 2, 75, and 280 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam). Results from six conventional evaporation quantification methods were compared with the values obtained by the Bowen ratio energy budget method (BREB). The results of the BREB method showed that there is no significant difference between the evaporation rates at Allaqi and Abusembel. At Raft, higher evaporation rates were obtained, which were assumed to be overestimated due to the high uncertainty of the Bowen ratio (BR) parameter. The average BR value at Allaqi and Abusembel was used to eliminate this overestimates evaporation. Variance-based sensitivity and uncertainty analyses on the BREB results were conducted based on quasi-Monte Carlo sequences (Latin Hypercube sampling). The standard deviation of the total uncertainty on the BREB evaporation rate was found to be 0.62 mm day(-1). The parameter controlling the change in stored energy, followed by the BR parameter, was found to be the most sensitive parameters. Several of the six conventional methods showed substantial bias when compared with the BREB method. These were modified to eliminate the bias. When compared to the BREB-based values, the Penman method showed most favorably for the daily time scale, while for the monthly scale, the Priestley-Taylor and the deBruin-Keijman methods showed best agreement. Differences in mean evaporation estimates of these methods (against the BREB method) were found to be in the range 0.14 and 0.36 mm day(-1). All estimates were based calculations at the daily time scale covering a 10-year period (1995-2004).