The acyclic 2,4-diaminopyrimidine nucleoside phosphonate acts as a purine mimetic in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase DNA polymerization
Herman, Brian D × Votruba, Ivan Holy, Antonin Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas Balzarini, Jan #
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:285 issue:16 pages:12101-12108
The acyclic pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) phosphonylmethoxyethoxydiaminopyrimidine (PMEO-DAPym) differs from other ANPs in that the aliphatic alkyloxy linker is bound to the C-6 of the 2,4-diaminopyrimidine base through an ether bond, instead of the traditional alkyl linkage to the N-1 or N-9 of the pyrimidine or purine base. In this study, we have analyzed the molecular interactions between PMEO-DAPym-diphosphate (PMEO-DAPym-pp) and the active sites of wild-type (WT) and drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Pre-steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that PMEO-DAPym-pp is a good substrate for WT HIV-1 RT: its catalytic efficiency of incorporation (k(pol)/K(d)) is only 2- to 3-fold less than that of the corresponding prototype purine nucleotide analogs PMEA-pp or (R)PMPA-pp. HIV-1 RT recognizes PMEO-DAPym-pp as a purine base instead of a pyrimidine base and incorporates it opposite to thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Molecular modeling demonstrates that PMEO-DAPym-pp fits into the active site of HIV-1 RT without significant perturbation of key amino acid residues and mimics an open incomplete purine ring that allows the canonical Watson-Crick base pairing to be maintained. PMEO-DAPym-pp is incorporated more efficiently than (R)PMPA-pp by mutant K65R HIV-1 RT and is not as efficiently excised as (R)PMPA by HIV-1 RT containing thymidine analog mutations. Overall, the data revealed that PMEO- DAPym represents the prototype compound of a novel class of pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates that are recognized as a purine nucleotide and should form the rational basis for the design and development of novel purine nucleo(s)(t)ide mimetics as potential antiviral or antimetabolic agents.