The immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile of a candidate hepatitis B vaccine in an adult vaccine non-responder population
Jacques, P × Moens, Guido Desombere, I Dewijngaert, J Leroux-Roels, G Wettendorff, M Thoelen, S #
Vaccine vol:20 issue:31-32 pages:3644-9
Approximately 5% of vaccinees display an inadequate response after the administration of the standard three dose hepatitis B vaccine. A new hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg/AS04) formulated with the adjuvant AS04 which contains 3'-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (3D-MPL) and alum has been developed. AS04 enhances the immune response which may be beneficial to non-responders. In a single-blind, randomised study, we tested the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the new vaccine with that of commercially established hepatitis B vaccine, both on a 0, 1, 6 months schedule in 20-60 years old non-responders (titre <10 m IU/ml after four doses of hepatitis B vaccine). One month after the first dose the seroprotection rate was 44% for group 1 (58 subjects) receiving the established vaccine versus 66% for group 2 receiving HBsAg/AS04 (57 subjects) (P=0.03). One month after the second dose this was 58 and 81%, respectively (P<0.005) and 1 month after the third dose this was 68 and 98%, respectively (P<0.001). One month after each dose, GMTs were 34, 56 and 111 mIU/ml for group 1 versus 123222 and 1937 mIU/ml for the HBsAg/AS04 group (P<0.05, <0.01 and 0.0001, respectively). Pain at the injection site was the most commonly reported local symptom and very few symptoms were scored as severe. In this group of adult non-responders to previous hepatitis vaccination, the HBsAg/AS04 vaccine was well tolerated and induced, at all time-points, a superior immune response compared to the licensed hepatitis B vaccine.