The ostracod fauna of southern Africa remains ill-known, in spite of the fact that the temporary pools of this
zoogeographical region hold degrees of endemicity comparable only to those of the ancient lakes of East Africa. The present contribution describes a new species of the cypridid genus Amphibolocypris, A. arida sp.nov., and announces the existence of at least two further new species from the same area. The genus, up to now presumed monospecific, might constitute an extensive radiation across southern Africa. Unusually large species-specific differences in hemipenis outline morphology appear to indicate that speciation occurred through sexual, rather than through natural selection. The occurrence of the claw-like subapical seta on the walking limb in at least four genera could be a case of convergent evolution, at least in one, maybe even in two cases between species of different genera and even subfamilies.