Pregnancy and delivery in women after Fontan palliation
Drenthen, W × Pieper, P G Roos-Hesselink, J W van Lottum, W A Voors, A A Mulder, B J M van Dijk, A P J Vliegen, H W Sollie, K M Moons, Philip Ebels, T van Veldhuisen, D J #
BMJ Pub. Group
Heart vol:92 issue:9 pages:1290-1294
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women after Fontan palliation and to assess the occurrence of infertility and menstrual cycle disorders. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Two congenital heart disease registries were used to investigate 38 female patients who had undergone Fontan palliation (aged 18-45 years): atriopulmonary anastomosis (n = 23), atrioventricular connection (n = 5) and total cavopulmonary connection (n = 10). RESULTS: Six women had 10 pregnancies, including five miscarriages (50%) and one aborted ectopic pregnancy. During the remaining four live-birth pregnancies clinically significant complications were encountered: New York Heart Association class deterioration; atrial fibrillation; gestational hypertension; premature rupture of membranes; premature delivery; fetal growth retardation and neonatal death. Four of seven women who had attempted to become pregnant reported female infertility: non-specified secondary infertility (n = 2), uterus bicornis (n = 1) and related to endometriosis (n = 1). Moreover, several important menstrual cycle disorders were documented. In particular, the incidence of primary amenorrhoea was high (n = 15, 40%), which resulted in a significant increase in age at menarche (14.6 (SD 2.1) years, p < 0.0001, compared with the general population). CONCLUSION: Women can successfully complete pregnancy after adequate Fontan palliation without important long-term sequelae, although it is often complicated by clinically significant (non-)cardiac events. In addition, subfertility or infertility and menstrual disorders were common.