Dendritic cells (DC) have always been present on the bright spot of immune research. They have been extensively studied for the last 35 years, and much is known about their different phenotypes, stimulatory capacity, and role in the immune system. During the last 15 years, great attention has been given to studies on global gene and protein expression profiles during the differentiation and maturation processes of these cells. It is well understood that studying the proteome, together with information on the role of protein post-translational modifications (PTM), will reveal the real dynamics of a living cell. The rapid increase of proteomic studies during the last decade describing the differentiation and maturation process in DCs, as well as modifications brought by the use of different compounds that either increase or decrease their immunogenicity, reflects the importance of understanding the molecular processes behind the functional properties of these cells. In the present review, we will give an overview of proteomic studies focusing on DCs. Thereby we will concentrate on the importance of these studies in understanding DC behavior from a molecular point of view and how these findings have aided in understanding the differences in functional properties of these cells.