The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology vol:117 issue:5 pages:1090-7
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma can be caused by chemicals. Previously, we established a murine model of immunologically mediated chemical-induced asthma using toluene diisocyanate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to verify this model using trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory sensitizer, and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), a dermal sensitizer. METHODS: BALB/c mice received dermal applications (vehicle or chemical) on days 1 and 7. On day 10, they received an intranasal instillation (vehicle or chemical). Whole-body plethysmography (enhanced pause) was used to monitor changes in ventilatory function and methacholine reactivity. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by using bronchoalveolar lavage (cells, TNF-alpha levels, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 levels). Immunologic parameters included total serum IgE levels, lymphocyte distribution in auricular and cervical lymph nodes, and IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels in supernatants of lymph node cells incubated with or without concanavalin A. RESULTS: Mice dermally treated and intranasally challenged with TMA experienced markedly increased enhanced pause immediately after intranasal challenge and increased methacholine reactivity (24 hours later). Mice similarly treated with DNCB did not show any ventilatory changes. Neutrophil influx and increased macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and TNF-alpha levels were found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in both TMA- and DNCB-treated mice. The proportion of CD19+ B cells was increased in auricular and cervical lymph nodes of TMA-treated mice. IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of concanavalin A-stimulated auricular and cervical lymph node cells of TMA- or DNCB-treated mice; however, the relative proportions of IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels differed between TMA- and DNCB-treated mice. Serum total IgE levels were increased in TMA-treated mice only. CONCLUSION: Both compounds induce a mixed T(H)1-T(H)2 response, but only TMA induced ventilatory changes. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: In the workplace avoiding skin contact with chemical sensitizers might be advised to prevent chemical-induced asthma.