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Title: Air pollution related prothrombotic changes in persons with diabetes
Authors: Jacobs, Lotte ×
Emmerechts, Jan
Mathieu, Chantal
Hoylaerts, Marc
Fierens, Frans
Hoet, Peter
Nemery, Benoit
Nawrot, Tim #
Issue Date: Feb-2010
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Series Title: Environmental Health Perspectives vol:118 issue:2 pages:191-196
Abstract: Background: Population studies suggest that persons with diabetes are more sensitive to the effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution. However, the biological mechanisms of a possible prothrombotic effect underlying this enhanced susceptibility remain largely unknown.Objective: We hypothesized that exposure to PM causes prothrombotic changes in persons with diabetes, possibly via systemic inflammation.Methods: Our study included 137 nonsmoking adults with diabetes who were outpatients at the University Hospital Leuven. Recent exposure (2 hr before examination) to ambient PM was measured at the entrance of the hospital. Individual chronic exposure to PM was assessed by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages obtained by sputum induction. Platelet function was measured ex vivo with the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer, which simulates a damaged blood vessel; we analyzed the function of platelets in primary hemostasis under high shear conditions. Total and differential blood leukocytes were counted.Results: Independent of antiplatelet medication, an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 39.2 microg/m3 in PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter </= 10 microm) concentration measured 2 hr before the clinical examination (recent exposure) was associated with a decrease of 21.1 sec [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.3 to 6.8] in the PFA-100 closure time (i.e., increased platelet activation) and an increase in blood leukocytes of 512 per microliter of blood (95% CI, 45.2979). Each area increase of 0.25 microm2 (IQR) in carbon load of airway macrophages (chronic exposure) was associated with an increase of 687 leukocytes per microliter of blood (95% CI, 2241,150).Conclusions: A relevant increase in recent PM exposure was associated with a change in platelet function toward a greater prothrombotic tendency. The magnitude of the change was about two-thirds (in the opposite direction) of the average effect of antiplatelet medication. Diabetic patients showed evidence of proinflammatory response to both recent and chronic exposure to PM air pollution. Editor's SummaryDiabetics are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, and the association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes may be stronger among diabetics than among nondiabetics. Jacobs et al. (p. 191) hypothesized that susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes among diabetics might be related to prothrombotic and inflammatory effects of PM. The authors estimated associations between PM exposures and measures of platelet function (estimated using the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer) and systemic inflammation (total and differential white blood cell counts) among 63 well-controlled diabetics (29 type I, 34 type II). Exposures included modeled estimates of average ambient residential PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter </= 10 microm), recent PM10 and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter </= 2.5 microm) exposures (at the study hospital), and a proxy measure of chronic carbon load (median area occupied by carbon in 50 airway macrophages from an induced sputum sample.) The authors report that recent PM10 exposure was associated with increased platelet activation, both before and after adjustment for type of diabetes and use of medications that inhibit platelet aggregation, and that carbon load was positively associated with platelet and white blood cell counts. The authors conclude that findings are consistent with proinflammatory responses to PM air pollution among diabetics.
ISSN: 0091-6765
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Occupational, Environmental and Insurance Medicine (-)
Molecular and Vascular Biology
Environment and Health - miscellaneous
Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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