International Journal of Earth Sciences vol:99 issue:2 pages:269-284
Ubiquitous post-Variscan dolomites occur in Zn–Pb–Cu veins at the Nízký Jeseník Mountains and the Upper Silesian Basin (Lower and Upper Carboniferous siliciclastics at the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif). Crush–leach, stable isotope (oxygen and carbon) and microthermometry analysis of the fluid inclusions in dolomites enable understanding the geochemistry, origin and possible migration pathways of the fluids. Homogenisation temperatures of fluid inclusions range between 66 and 148°C, with generally higher temperatures in the Nízký Jeseník Mountains area than in the Upper Silesian Basin. The highest homogenisation temperatures (up to 148°C) have been found near major regional faults and the lowest in a distant position or at higher stratigraphic levels. Highly saline (16.6–28.4 eq. wt% NaCl) H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 ± MgCl2 fluids occur in inclusions. Na–Cl–Br systematics of trapped fluids and a calculated oxygen isotopic fluid composition between −0.9 and +3.0‰ V-SMOW indicate that the fluid was derived from evaporated seawater. Stable isotopic modelling has been used to explain stable isotopic trends. Isotopic values (δ13C = −6.0/+2.0‰ V-PDB, δ18O = +15.5/+22.5‰ V-SMOW of dolomites) resulted from fractionation and crystallisation within an open system at temperatures between 80 and 160°C. Rock-buffering explains the isotopic composition at low w/r ratios. Organic matter maturation caused the presence of isotopically light carbon in the fluids and fluid–rock interactions largely controlled the fluid chemistry (K, Li, Br and Na contents, K/Cl, I/Cl and Li/Cl molar ratios). The fluid chemistry reflects well the interaction between the fluid and underlying limestones as well as with clay- and organic-rich siliciclastics. No regional trends in temperature or fluid geochemistry favour a fluid migration model characterised by an important vertical upward migration along major faults. A permeable basement and fractured sedimentary sequence enhanced the general nature of the fluid system. Fluid characteristics are comparable with the main post-Variscan fluid flow systems in the Polish (Cracow-Silesian ore district) and German sedimentary basins.