During the last three decades knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has dramatically increased. The discovery of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motifs 13) deficiency in a subset of patients with TTP has been an important milestone. Apart from this, the use of therapeutic plasma exchange has reduced mortality rates in TTP from 80-90% to 10-20%. Nevertheless, TTP remains a possibly lethal disorder, in which early recognition of symptoms remains extremely important. In the last few years some interesting new insights into TTP have arisen. Firstly, promising reports on rituximab in the treatment of refractory and relapsing cases of TTP have been published. Secondly, risk stratification by means of ADAMTS13 deficiency and ADAMTS13 antibodies might lead to a more tailored approach in treating TTP patients.