This study investigated the effect of self-assessment with and without motor activity on the quality of CPR in reciprocal learning with task cards. Gender differences in learning outcomes were analysed as well. Eighty-six university students (39 women and 47 men) were randomised in pairs into three groups: cognitive self-assessment, cognitive-motor self-assessment, and a control. Student pairs had to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) in 20 min with task cards. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and 2 weeks later (retention). Results at intervention and retention showed no beneficial effects of self-assessment on the quality of CPR. Self-assessment with motor activity did not differ significantly from merely cognitive self-assessment. At retention, males ventilated significantly less volume than females. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that implementing self-assessment in reciprocal learning with task cards does not lead to better CPR performance in the present target group.