The introduction of bonding agents in restorative dentistry has made it possible to adhere restorative materials to tooth structure. Since bonded restorations were introduced by Buonocore in 1955, extensive research has been conducted to develop systems that bond equally effectively to enamel and dentin. Researchers have identified a micromechanical retention mechanism for the attachment of hydrophobic resin restorative materials to both enamel and dentin that works if appropriate conditioning or priming steps are applied. At the dentin site, the modes of action of current adhesive systems converge to create a resin-dentin interdiffusion zone between the deep dentin structures and the filling material. To incorporate or remove the smear layer in this interdiffusion zone, different adhesion strategies are followed to obtain a resin-dentin bond. In the clinical situation, these modern dentin-bonding systems are more technique sensitive; the thickness of the interface, its elastic capacity, the polymerization efficiency and initiation of the bonding agent, and, finally, the application technique used for the restorative material play an important role in the final result.