Glass-ionomers (GIs) exhibit excellent clinical bonding effectiveness, but still have shortcomings such as polishability and general aesthetics. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) to enamel and dentin of a nano-filled resin-modified GI (nano-RMGI; Ketac N100, 3M-ESPE), and (2) to characterize its interfacial interaction with enamel and dentin using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). METHODS: The nano-RMGI was used both with and without its primer, while a conventional RMGI restorative material (conv-RMGI; Fuji II LC, GC) and a packable conventional GI cement (conv-GI; Fuji IX GP, GC) were used as controls. After bonding to freshly extracted human third molars, microspecimens of the interfaces were machined into a cylindrical hourglass shape and tested to failure in tension. Non-demineralized TEM sections were prepared and examined from additional teeth. RESULTS: The microTBS to both enamel and dentin of nano-RMGI and conv-GI were not statistically different; the microTBS of non-primed nano-RMGI was significantly lower, while that of conv-RMGI was significantly higher than that of all other groups. TEM of nano-RMGI disclosed a tight interface at enamel and dentin without surface demineralization and hybrid-layer formation. A thin filler-free zone (<1 microm) was formed at dentin. A high filler loading and effective filler distribution were also evident, with localized areas exhibiting nano-filler clustering. CONCLUSIONS: The nano-RMGI bonded as effectively to enamel and dentin as conv-GI, but bonded less effectively than conv-RMGI. Its bonding mechanism should be attributed to micro-mechanical interlocking provided by the surface roughness, most likely combined with chemical interaction through its acrylic/itaconic acid copolymers.