Journal of biomedical materials research vol:23 issue:7 pages:735-52
Bioactive glass can form an effective bond with bone. Essential for this connection are the interfacial reactions which lead to the development of a Si-rich film covered by a CaP-rich film. The presence of these layers can be demonstrated clearly by EDX analysis of fiber-reinforced bioactive glass and bulk bioactive glass implants installed for 4 and 16 months in the partial edentulous jaws of beagle dogs. EDX analysis reveals three types of microchemical interface. The first type develops when the implant is bonded to bone. Here, a smooth transition of the CaP profile can be observed between bioactive glass and the bone, thus providing for a compositional gradient between the implant and the surrounding tissues. The second type is seen when the implant surface is surrounded by fibrous tissue. This causes a discontinuity in the CaP profile. The third type is characterized by a gradual decrease in the Ca and P concentrations across the interface, caused by the presence of Ca and P in the fibrous tissue near the implant surface. This suggests that the interface is dynamic in time and transforms to a functionally better optimized interface. EDX analysis does not reveal any metal fiber ion contamination of the outer glass rim of the implant. When stainless-steel or wrought Co-Cr alloy is exposed to the surrounding fluids, the interfacial osteogenesis is disturbed, possibly by a synergistic effect of glass ions and metal ions. Exposure of titanium does not interfere with this osteogenesis. The bone bonding can also be influenced by surgical trauma. However, with precise implantation techniques, an enhancement of bone growth by osteoconductivity can be measured.