A stereognostic ability test was performed in 60 patients. Forty patients were rehabilitated by means of osseointegrated implants. One group consisted of 20 patients with fixed prostheses on implants in both the upper and lower jaws. The other 20 patients had a maxillary denture while in the mandible an overdenture was retained by means of two implants connected by a bar. They were compared to a group of 20 subjects (controls) with a non-restored natural dentition. For the stereognostic ability test, subjects had to recognise ten different test pieces by manipulating them with two antagonistic incisor teeth, avoiding any contact with other oral structures. Both response time and percentage accuracy of recognition were evaluated. The present findings indicated that subjects with an overdenture on implants did not score significantly different from those with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. In contrast, subjects with teeth had a significantly better stereognostic ability. The percentage of correct responses was 52% for overdentures, 56% for fixed prostheses on implants and 75% for natural dentitions. From these results, it could be concluded that the stereognostic ability is impaired in subjects rehabilitated with osseointegrated implants by about one-third to one-quarter compared to subjects with natural teeth.