AIMS: Recently we reported that percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure had no influence on the prevalence of migraine during a short followup period. 12 % of patients however developed a new-onset migraine after the ASD closure. As it has been suggested that the closing device might induce or maintain migraine temporarily, we were interested in the prevalence of migraine at longer follow-up. METHODS: All 75 patients included in the previous study, received the same structured headache questionnaire. A neurologist, blinded to previous data, diagnosed migraine with or without aura (MA+ or MA-) according to the International Headache Criteria. McNemar paired X2 test was used to evaluate changes in the occurrence of migraine. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients (94.7%) answer the questionnaire (55 women, mean age at closure 51 +/- 18 years). Mean follow-up time was 52 +/- 13 months. The overall migraine prevalence decreased from 30.7% before to 22.5% after closure (P=0.21). A significant reduction was noted in patients with new-onset migraine early after closure (n=7), where migraine disappeared in 6 patients (P=0.031). In the group with persistent migraine early after closure (n=13), another 6 patients became migraine-free (P=0.031). CONCLUSION: Percutaneous ASD closure was not related to a significant decrease in overall migraine prevalence. However, new-onset and persistent migraine early after closure disappeared.