Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde vol:144 issue:12 pages:548-53
Dysphagia and chest pain are the two commonest symptoms of abnormalities of oesophageal motility. Dysphagia is to be distinguished into high or oropharyngeal and low or oesophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia pertains to dysfunction of the pars cricopharyngea of the M. constrictor pharyngis inferior (M. cricopharyngeus), which is frequently associated with a Zenker diverticulum. Treatment consists of endoscopical or surgical myotomy and diverticulectomy. In achalasia there is incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter with aperistalsis. The main treatment modalities are endoscopic pneumodilation and surgical myotomy of this sphincter. In dysphagia or non-cardiac chest pain spastic or hypocontractile abnormalities of the oesophageal motility can be involved, these are often difficult to treat. Disorders of gastric motility are mainly gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. In diabetic gastroparesis, adequate monitoring of the blood sugar level is also necessary. New insights into the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia concern abnormal visceral sensitivity and reduced adaptive relaxation of the stomach during intake of food.