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Title: Craniofacial reconstruction using a combined statistical model of face shape and soft tissue depths: methodology and validation
Authors: Claes, Peter ×
Vandermeulen, Dirk
De Greef, Sven
Willems, Guy
Suetens, Paul #
Issue Date: Apr-2006
Publisher: Elsevier
Series Title: Forensic Science International vol:159 pages:S147-S158
Conference: International conference on reconstruction of soft facial parts - RSFP 2006 edition:3 location:Leuven, Belgium date:May 15-16, 2006
Abstract: Forensic facial reconstruction aims at estimating the facial outlook associated with an unidentified skull specimen. Estimation is generally based on tabulated average values of soft tissue thicknesses measured at a sparse set of landmarks on the skull. Traditional 'plastic' methods apply modeling clay or plasticine on a cast of the skull, approximating the estimated tissue depths at the landmarks and interpolating in between. Current computerized techniques mimic this landmark interpolation procedure using a single static facial surface template. However, the resulting reconstruction is biased by the specific choice of the template and no face-specific regularization is used during the interpolation process. We reduce the template bias by using a flexible statistical model of a dense set of facial surface points, combined with an associated sparse set of skull-based landmarks. This statistical model is constructed from a facial database of (N = 118) individuals and limits the reconstructions to statistically plausible outlooks. The actual reconstruction is obtained by fitting the skull-based landmarks of the template model to the corresponding landmarks indicated on a digital copy of the skull to be reconstructed. The fitting process changes the face-specific statistical model parameters in a regularized way and interpolates the remaining landmark fit error using a minimal bending thin-plate spline (TPS)-based deformation. Furthermore, estimated properties of the skull specimen (BMI, age and gender, e.g.) can be incorporated as conditions on the reconstruction by removing property-related shape variation from the statistical model description before the fitting process. The proposed statistical method is validated, both in terms of accuracy and identification success rate, based on leave-one-out cross-validation tests applied on the facial database. Accuracy results are obtained by statistically analyzing the local 3D facial surface differences of the reconstructions and their corresponding ground truth. Identification success rate is obtained by comparing, based on correlation, Euclidean distance matrix (EDM) signatures of the reconstructed and the original 3D facial surfaces in the database. A subjective identification success rate is quantified based on face-pool tests. Finally a qualitative comparison is made between facial reconstructions of a real-case skull, based on two typical static face models and our statistical model, showing the shortcomings of current face models and the improved performance of the statistical model.
Description: Claes P., Vandermeulen D., De Greef S., Willems G., Suetens P., ''Craniofacial reconstruction using a combined statistical model of face shape and soft tissue depths : methodology and validation'', Forensic science international, vol. 159 supplement 1, pp. S147-S158, May 2006 (3rd international conference on reconstruction of soft facial parts - RSFP 2006, May 15-16, 2006, Leuven, Belgium).
ISSN: 0379-0738
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Forensic Dentistry
ESAT - PSI, Processing Speech and Images
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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