A psychological cascade model for persisting voice problems in teachers
De Jong, Felix × Cornelis, BE Wuyts, FL Kooijman, PGC Schutte, HK Oudes, MJ Graamans, K #
Folia phoniatrica et logopaedica vol:55 issue:2 pages:91-101
In 76 teachers with persisting voice problems, the maintaining factors and coping strategies were examined. Physical, functional, psychological and socioeconomic factors were assessed. A parallel was drawn to a psychological cascade model designed for patients with chronic back pain. The majority of the patients were found to be in a deadlocked situation (phase 1 of the cascade model), for which the combination of externalization and unawareness of the situation is the main risk factor. Subjective rating of the voice problem was assessed by the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients in phase 1 of the cascade model showed higher VHI and VAS scores compared with the other patients. For a high VHI score, the combination of socioeconomic factors and being in phase I was the most important risk factor. Socioeconomic factors were the most important risk factors for a high VAS score. We introduce the term 'chronicity', which means that the problems are maintained, the patient finds himself in a deadlocked situation, and is sliding down into a chronic disease. 'Chronicity' is essentially different from 'chronic', which refers only to the duration of the disease. We consider maintaining factors and (inadequate) coping factors, which consist of emotional/psychological, physical and socioeconomic aspects, as indicators for chronicity. Copyright (C) 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.