Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire vol:53 issue:3 pages:105-51
Tooth luxations are relatively common. In case of concussion or subluxation the tooth is not displaced. The treatment will consist of relief of the tooth. Most frequent complications are pulp necrosis and obliteration of pulpal tissues. In case of extrusive luxation pulpal tissues and the periodontal ligament are injured. When tooth mobility is increased flexible splinting should be considered. Endodontic treatment is necessary after extrusive luxation of a tooth with completed root formation. Teeth with open apex often show pulpal obliteration after extensive luxation. Lateral luxation is more complex than extrusive luxation since the alveolar bone is also damaged. Repositioning and splinting of the tooth are necessary. When the apical foramen in closed, endodontic treatment will be necessary. Teeth with incomplete root formation will develop pulp obliteration. Following lateral luxation, external root resorption and loss of marginal bone are not infrequent. Intrusive luxation is the type of trauma with most unfavorable prognosis. All intruded teeth will become necrotic and external root resorption and marginal bone loss are frequent. There is no consensus regarding the therapeutic approach. Orthodontic extrusion or surgical mobilisation are possible options. In case of avulsion, both the pulpal tissues and the periodontal ligament are disrupted. Preservation of the vitality of the periodontal ligament covering the root will determine the prognosis of the reimplanted tooth. Therefore the tooth will be repositioned as soon as possible. When this is not possible, milk or a specific solution are most appropriate for tooth conservation. When the reimplanted tooth has complete root formation, devitalization will be performed one week after after repositioning. In case of a tooth with open apex revascularisation can be awaited. Healing of the periodontal ligament will determine prognosis. When a normal ligament is obtained during healing or when surface resorption is obtained, the tooth can be preserved for a long period. When progressive replacement resorption (ankylosis) develops, most teeth can remain in position for about 10 years. When inflammatory resorption develops, the tooth will be lost within a short time.