Title: Dosage-dependent severity of the phenotype in patients with mental retardation due to a recurrent copy-number gain at Xq28 mediated by an unusual recombination
Authors: Vandewalle, Joke
Van Esch, Hilde
Govaerts, Karen
Verbeeck, Jelle
Zweier, Christiane
Madrigal, Irene
Mila, Montserrat
Pijkels, Elly
Fernandez, Isabel
Kohlhase, Jürgen
Spaich, Christiane
Rauch, Anita
Fryns, Jean-Pierre
Marynen, Peter
Froyen, Guido # ×
Issue Date: Dec-2009
Publisher: American Society of Human Genetics
Series Title: American Journal of Human Genetics vol:85 issue:6 pages:809-22
Abstract: We report on the identification of a 0.3 Mb inherited recurrent but variable copy-number gain at Xq28 in affected males of four unrelated families with X-linked mental retardation (MR). All aberrations segregate with the disease in the families, and the carrier mothers show nonrandom X chromosome inactivation. Tiling Xq28-region-specific oligo array revealed that all aberrations start at the beginning of the low copy repeat LCR-K1, at position 153.20 Mb, and end just distal to LCR-L2, at 153.54 Mb. The copy-number gain always includes 18 annotated genes, of which RPL10, ATP6AP1 and GDI1 are highly expressed in brain. From these, GDI1 is the most likely candidate gene. Its copy number correlates with the severity of clinical features, because it is duplicated in one family with nonsyndromic moderate MR, is triplicated in males from two families with mild MR and additional features, and is present in five copies in a fourth family with a severe syndromic form of MR. Moreover, expression analysis revealed copy-number-dependent increased mRNA levels in affected patients compared to control individuals. Interestingly, analysis of the breakpoint regions suggests a recombination mechanism that involves two adjacent but different sets of low copy repeats. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that an increased expression of GDI1 results in impaired cognition in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, these data also imply that a copy-number gain of an individual gene present in the larger genomic aberration that leads to the severe MECP2 duplication syndrome can of itself result in a clinical phenotype as well.
ISSN: 0002-9297
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Department of Human Genetics - miscellaneous
Human Genome Laboratory
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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