As part of an epidemiological study on the oral health of Flemish schoolchildren, fluoride use was studied together with risk factors ( medical history, tap water fluoride concentration, use of fluoride supplements, toothpaste and brushing habits). Fluorosis was scored according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI) in children aged 11 years ( 4,128 children examined). Explanatory variables were recorded yearly, starting at the age of 7. Earliest toothpaste use was reported at the age of 1. By age 7, 99.7% of the children reported the use of toothpaste (90% fluoride-containing), but only 13.9% reported using a pea-sized amount. At age 7, 66% of the children had received systemic fluoride supplements during at least part of their childhood. At 11 years, 92% of the children used a fluoride-containing toothpaste and 6% still received systemic fluoride supplements. Fluorosis was present in about 10% of all the children examined, mainly TFI score 1 (7.3% in upper central incisors). Logistic regression established tooth brushing frequency and fluoride supplement use, in addition to tap water fluoride concentrations above 0.7 mg/l, as significant risk factors when the presence of fluorosis on at least one tooth was used as outcome variable. Children having fluorosis had a lower risk of caries, both in the primary ( median dmft 1, range 0-10 vs. 2, range 0-12) and permanent dentition ( median DMFT 0, range 0-5 vs. 0, range 0-11).