Effect of firing temperature and atmosphere on sintering of ceramics made from Bayer process bauxite residue
Pontikes, Yiannis Rathossi, C. Nikolopoulos, P. Angelopoulos, G.N. × Javaseelan, D.D. Lee, W.E. #
Elsevier sci ltd
Ceramics international vol:35 issue:1 pages:401-407
Bauxite residue, the principal waste from the Bayer process, was dried, pressed and studied for its thermal and sintering behaviour under different atmospheres, up to 1100 degrees C. For sintering in air and N-2, shrinkage begins at 800 degrees C and ranges from 2.6% to 13.9%, after firing at 1000-1100 degrees C. Bulk density varies from 1.7 to 2.3 g/cm(3) whereas water absorption from 31.5% to 17.7%. The main crystalline phases identified on firing in air were hematite (Fe2O3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and perovskite (CaTiO3) whereas magnetite (Fe3O4) was also found on firing in N-2. Microstructures are characterised by irregularly shaped, <20 mu m Feret diameter, pores in a ceramic matrix with interconnected porosity. The average pore size is greater in samples fired in N-2. On sintering in 4%H-2/Ar, shrinkage begins at 710 degrees C. After firing at 1100 degrees C, shrinkage is 20.1% and water absorption 1%. The main crystalline phases are magnetite, wustite (FeO), gehlenite and perovskite. Mcrostructures are characterised by a compact heterogeneous matrix, with isolated <15 mu m. Feret diameter, closed pores. The grains have reacted with the adjacent phase and their shape is rounded with no sharp facets. Increased sintering temperature results in improved physical properties for all atmospheres tested and in higher average pore size when sintering takes place in air and N-2. The use of magnetite-reducing sintering conditions can potentially assist in the production of a variety of ceramic compositions containing bauxite residue. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group. S.r.l. All rights reserved.