Use of boron wastes in the production of heavy clay ceramics
Christogerou, A. Kavas, T. Pontikes, Yiannis Koyas, S. Tabak, Y. Angelopoulos, G.N. # ×
Elsevier sci ltd
Ceramics international vol:35 issue:1 pages:447-452
Colemanite, ulexite and tincal are the main boron ores found in Turkey and account to 63% of the world estimated reserves. The production route of boron products results in significant amounts of different types of Boron Wastes, BW. Their open field disposal raises substantial environmental concerns in fear of leaching and groundwater pollution. The heavy clay ceramic industry can potentially absorb substantial quantities of BW. In the present study, BW produced from Kirka borax plants in Turkey, with 12.6 wt.% B2O3 was introduced in 0 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 15 wt.% in a heavy clay body mixture. Four peak temperatures, 800 degrees C, 850 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 950 degrees C, were examined for the dry pressed samples. The thermal behaviour analyzed by dilatometry and TGA shows that major loss in weight starts about 600 degrees C and continues to 700 degrees C approximately. For 5 wt.% BW addition and firing at 900-950 degrees C, the sintered bodies present comparable or improved physical and mechanical properties with respect to the reference formulation. The microstructure was analyzed by SEM whereas the main crystalline phases were identified by XRD. Samples fired at 900 degrees C with 5 wt.% BW present comparable properties with the reference ones. At 950 degrees C, the obtained properties were improved. Deformation occurs for samples with 15 wt.% BW when fired at >900 degrees C. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.