Clinical oral implants research vol:13 issue:1 pages:1-19
The use of oral implants in the rehabilitation of partially and fully edentulous patients is widely accepted even though failures do occur. The chance for implants to integrate can for example be jeopardised by the intra-oral presence of bacteria and concomitant inflammatory reactions. The longevity of osseointegrated implants can be compromised by occlusal overload and/or plaque-induced peri-implantitis, depending on the implant geometry and surface characteristics. Animal studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in man, as well as association studies indicate that peri-implantitis is characterised by a microbiota comparable to that of periodontitis (high proportion of anaerobic Gram-negative rods, motile organisms and spirochetes), but this does not necessarily prove a causal relationship. However, in order to prevent such a bacterial shift, the following measures can be considered: periodontal health in the remaining dentition (to prevent bacterial translocation), the avoidance of deepened peri-implant pockets, and the use of a relatively smooth abutment and implant surface. Finally, periodontitis enhancing factors such as smoking and poor oral hygiene also increase the risk for peri-implantitis. Whether the susceptibility for periodontitis is related to that for peri-implantitis may vary according to the implant type and especially its surface topography.