Composites part a-applied science and manufacturing vol:40 issue:8 pages:1144-1157
This Part 2 paper presents results of comparative experimental study of progressive damage in 2D and 3D woven glass/epoxy composites under in-plane tensile loading. As Part 1, this Part 2 work is focused on the comparison of in-plane tensile properties of two non-crimp single-ply 3D orthogonal weave E-glass fibre composites on one side and a laminate reinforced with four plies of E-glass plain weave on the other. The damage investigation methodology combines mechanical testing with acoustic emission registration (that provides damage initiation thresholds), progressive cracks observation on transparent samples, full-field surface strain mapping and cracks observation on micrographs, altogether enabling for a thorough characterisation of the local micro- and meso-damage modes of the studied composites. The obtained results demonstrate that the non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven composites have significantly higher in-plane strengths, failure strains and damage initiation thresholds than their 2D woven laminated counterpart. The growth of transverse cracks in the yarns of 3D composites is delayed, and they are less prone to a yarn-matrix interfacial crack formation and propagation. Delaminations developing between the plies of plain weave fabric in the laminate at certain load level never appear in the 3D woven single-ply composites. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.